Formal education & pastoral risk management
An article on the role of formal education in pastoral societies “Can formal education reduce risks for drought-prone pastoralists?“, which appeared in Human Organization in 2009, argues that education should figure prominently in strategies and planning for pastoral risk management, since engaging in labour markets is a critical component of pastoralist livelihoods and this is facilitated by education. Through a case study of the Maasai-related Il Chamus people of Baringo District, Kenya, the paper explores whether formal education reduces risks for pastoralists, and what social and economic conditions facilitate positive roles for herder education. The authors document local trends in education achievement over the period 1980–2004, contributions of education to local livelihoods, and the effects of a tightening labour market and budget restrictions on opportunities for education and employment. It is concluded that formal education should be viewed as a supplement to support pastoralism rather than to replace it.